Meaning and Concept of Planning
In simple words, planning is deciding in advance what is to be done, when where, how and by whom it is to be done. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It includes the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programs from among alternatives. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal. It is an intellectual process characterized by thinking before doing. It is an attempt on the part of manager to anticipate the future in order to achieve better performance. Planning is the primary function of management.
Definitions of Planning
Different authors have given different definitions of planning from time to time. The main definitions of planning are as follows:
“Planning is the thinking process, the organized foresight, the vision based on fact and experience that is required for intelligent action.”Alford and Beatt
“Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. When a manager plans, he projects a course of action for further attempting to achieve a consistent co-ordinate structure of operations aimed at the desired results.”Theo Haimann
“Planning is fundamentally choosing and a planning problem arises when an alternative course of action is discovered.”Billy E. Goetz
“Planning is an intellectual process, conscious determination of course of action, the basing of decision on purpose, facts and considered estimates.”Koontz and O’ Donnell
“A plan is a trap laid to capture the future.”Allen
Nature / Characteristics of Planning
The main characteristics or nature of planning is given below:
Planning is an Intellectual Process
Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance. It is a process of deciding the future on the series of events to follow. Planning is a process where a number of steps are to be taken to decide the future course of action. Managers or executives have to consider various courses of action, achieve the desired goals, go in details of the pros and cons of every course of action and then finally decide what course of action may suit them best.
Planning Contributes to the Objectives
Planning contributes positively in attaining the objectives of the business enterprise. Since plans are there from the very first stage of operation, the management is able to handle every problem successfully. Plans try to set everything right. A purposeful, sound and effective planning process knows how and when to tackle a problem. This leads to success. Objectives thus are easily achieved.
Planning is a Primary Function of Management
Planning precedes other functions in the management process. Certainly, setting of goals to be achieved and lines of action to be followed precedes the organization, direction, supervision and control. No doubt, planning precedes other functions of management. It is primary requisite before other managerial functions step in. But all functions are inter-connected. It is mixed in all managerial functions but there too it gets precedence. It thus gets primary everywhere.
A continuous Process
Planning is a continuous process and a never ending activity of a manager in an enterprise based upon some assumptions which may or may not come true in the future. Therefore, the manager has to go on modifying revising and adjusting plans in the light of changing circumstances.
“Planning is a continuous process and there is no end to it. It involves continuous collection, evaluation and selection of data, and scientific investigation and analysis of the possible alternative courses of action and the selection of the best alternative.”George R. Terry
Planning Pervades Managerial Activities
From primary of planning follows pervasiveness of planning. It is the function of every managerial personnel. The character, nature and scope of planning may change from personnel to personnel but the planning as an action remains intact. According to Billy E. Goetz, “Plans cannot make an enterprise successful. Action is required, the enterprise must operate managerial planning seeks to achieve a consistent, coordinated structure of operations focused on desired trends. Without plans, action must become merely activity producing nothing but chaos.”
Role, Significance & Advantages of Planning
An organization without planning is like a sailboat minus its rudder. Without planning, organization, are subject to the winds of organizational change. Planning is one of the most important and crucial functions of management.
“Without planning business becomes random in nature and decisions become meaningless and adhoc choices.” According to Geroge R. Terry, “Planning is the foundation of most successful actions of any enterprise.”Koontz and O’Donnell
Planning becomes necessary due to the following reasons:
Reduction of Uncertainty
Future is always full of uncertainties. A business organization has to function in these uncertainties. It can operate successfully if it is able to predict the uncertainties. Some of the uncertainties can be predicted by undertaking systematic. Some of the uncertainties can be predicted by undertaking systematic forecasting. Thus, planning helps in foreseeing uncertainties which may be caused by changes in technology, fashion and taste of people, government rules and regulations, etc.
Better Utilization of Resources
An important advantage of planning is that it makes effective and proper utilization of enterprise resources. It identifies all such available resources and makes optimum use of these resources.
Increases Organizational Effectiveness
Planning ensures organizational effectiveness. Effectiveness ensures that the organization is in a position to achieve its objective due to increased efficiency of the organization.
Reduces the Cost of Performance
Planning assists in reducing the cost of performance. It includes the selection of only one course of action amongst the different courses of action that would yield the best results at minimum cost. It removes hesitancy, avoids crises and chaos, eliminates false steps and protects against improper deviations.
Concentration on Objectives
It is a basic characteristic of planning that it is related to the organizational objectives. All the operations are planned to achieve the organizational objectives. Planning facilitates the achievement of objectives by focusing attention on them. It requires the clear definition of objectives so that most appropriate alternative courses of action are chosen.
Helps in Co-ordination
Good plans unify the interdepartmental activity and clearly lay down the area of freedom in the development of various sub-plans. Various departments work in accordance with the overall plans of the organization. Thus, there is harmony in the organization, and duplication of efforts and conflict of jurisdiction are avoided.
Makes Control Effective
Planning and control are inseparable in the sense that unplanned action cannot be controlled because control involves keeping activities on the predetermined course by rectifying deviations from plans. Planning helps control by furnishing standards of performance.
Encouragement to Innovation
Planning helps innovative and creative thinking among the managers because many new ideas come to the mind of a manager when he is planning. It creates a forward-looking attitude among the managers.
Increase in Competitive Strength
Effective planning gives a competitive edge to the enterprise over other enterprises that do not have planning or have ineffective planning. This is because planning may involve expansion of capacity, changes in work methods, changes in quality, anticipation of tastes and fashions of people and technological changes etc.
Delegation is facilitated
A good plan always facilitates delegation of authority in a better way to subordinates.